What Is Hypertension? The Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Definition of Overview
Hypertension is a condition that occurs when the amount of blood pumped by the heart exceeds the capacity that can be accommodated by artery walls. When the blood counts are high, complications can occur depending on the relationship between blood counts and arterial capacity. The more is blood flowing and the narrower the wall of arteries, the higher blood pressure will become.

There are two types of blood pressure, depending on the cause, there are primary or underlying hypertension, which can develop for years without symptoms and the secondary hypertension, which occurs as a result of other underlying condition, although more common is among older people, high blood pressure can occur in everyone at any age, they include children and adolescents. People with hypertension face a higher risk of more serious conditions such as heart attacks and strokes.

Hypertension is
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Causes
There is not definitive cause for primary or underlying hypertension. Blood pressure develops gradually over an annual period and it is usually made worse by the aging process. For secondary hypertension, there is a medical condition that ultimately leads to it. The following conditions are commonly associated with high blood pressure:
  • Kidney problems
  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Chronic abnormalities in blood vessels
  • Sleep apnea

The secondary hyertension can also be caused by the use of some drugs and chemical such as:
  • Family planning pills
  • Cold medicine
  • Respiratory drugs (decongestants)
  • Pain reliever
  • Alcohol
  • Cocaine
  • Amphetamine

Main Symptoms

In some cases of high blood pressure, the symptoms do not appear even when the blood pressure reading has reached a high level. It can be dangerous because the symptoms usually appear only when the condition has been life threatening. However, the symptoms that are generally associated with the condition are as follows:
  • Headache
  • Dizzy
  • Nosebleed
  • Balance problems

Types of Treatment Available

Making lifestyle changes is usually the main thing recommended for people with hypertension. By reducing activities that increase the risk of hypertension, the patients can maintain a healthy level of blood pressure. The doctors recommend to maintain a healthy diet by reducing salt consumption, exercising regularly, stop smoking, and maintaining a healthy body weight. People who are overweight 2.5 kg which can also reduce their blood pressure significantly.

Dietary changes are also usually preferred on reducing sodium level or salt consumption. The recommended level of sodium can be consumed in one day in patients over the age of 51 years and has hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease is 1500 mg. Healthier patients without any medical conditions can consume as much as 2300 mg of salt every day.

Changes in lifestyle and diet should also be combined with appropiate drugs to control blood pressure. Some medications that are commonly prescribed for high blood pressure include:
  • Thiazide diuretics - these drugs release sodium and water from the kidneys to reduce blood volume
  • Bet block - slows the heart rate, reduces the amount of blood pumped throughout the body. However, these drugs need to be combined with other types of medicines because they do not work well by themselves
  • Angiotension - converting enzyme - ACE inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Renin inhibitors
  • Alpha inhibitor
  • Alpha-beta blocker
  • Central acting agents
  • Vasodilators
  • Aldosterone inhibitors

Blood pressure that remain high even after taking drugs is called resistant hypertension. The doctors will work with their patients to find the right combination of drugs to take and monitor the progress of treatment. It is also highly important for hypertension sufferers to consume their medicines exactly as they advised by doctors. Taking the right dose at right time is highly important especially when different medicines are combined. Missing doses can have a negative effect on the condition and it can interfere with successful treatment.

For hypertensive patients, it is important to carry out treatments with specific targets to be achieved. This goal, expressed in a safe range of high blood pressure that must be maintained, depends on the patients health and age. The ideal blood pressure level is 120 mmHg, but healthy adults over 60 years of age are recommended to maintain their blood pressure lower than 150/90 mmHg. On the other hand, adults under the age of 60 years should keep their blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg. ultimately, hypertensive patients who also have other medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes, or chronic artery must have treatment goals of less than 10/90 mmHg.

During the treatment process, continuous monitoring of blood pressure is highly important for the patient's recovery and it is highly important to say whether the prescribed medication is working or not. As such, it is highly helpful if the family members know how to monitor the blood pressure levels so that it can be done at any time in the patient's home.


Source: www.docdoc.com (Accessed on 16 February 2020)

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